Hacking has been a part of computing for 40 years. Some of the first hackers were members of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Tech Model Railroading Club (TMRC) in 1950s. Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. In the case of networks the security is also called the information security. Information security means protecting information and information system from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction. The intent of hacking is to discover vulnerabilities so system can be better secured. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, challenge, enjoyment or to evaluate those weaknesses to assist in removing them. Basic purpose of hacker is to know the system internally without any bad intention.

Hacking is the process of attempting to gain or successfully gaining, unauthorized access to computer resources. Computer hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the creator’s original purpose.

The Term “Hacking” in information security refers to exploiting the vulnerabilities in a system, compromising the security to gain unauthorized command and control over the system resources.


Purpose of Hacking

It may include modification of system resources, disruption of features and services to achieve goals. It can also be used to steal information for any use like sending it to competitors, regulatory bodies or publicizing the sensitive information.

Phases of Hacking

The following are the five phases of hacking, namely,

  1. Reconnaissance
  2. Scanning
  3. Gaining Access
  4. Maintaining Access
  5. Clearing Tracks

Reconnaissance – It is an initial preparing phase for the attacker to get ready for an attack by gathering the information about the target before launching an attack using different tools and techniques. Sometimes reconnaissance is used with footprinting.

Tools Used: Search Engines, Dialler, Social Medias

Scanning – is a pre-attack phase. In this phase, attacker scans the network by information acquired during the initial phase of reconnaissance. Mostly hacker’s use tools to simplify their works,

Tools Used: Kali Linux, NMAP, Metasploit

Gaining Access – It is phase of hacking, where the hacker gets the control over an operating system, application or computer network. Control gained by the attacker defines the access level such as operating system level, application level or network level access. After gaining access the attacker performs attacks like password cracking, denial of service, session hijacking or buffer overflow and others are used to gain unauthorized access.

Tools Used: Kali Linux, BEEF (Browser Exploitation Framework)

Maintaining Access – It is the point when an attacker is trying to maintain the access, ownership & control over the compromised systems. Attacker uses Backdoor, Root-kit or Trojans to compromise the systems and to retain their ownership. This phase is also known as the stage of escalating the gained access. Attackers use these infected systems to other launch attacks.

Tools Used: Backdoors, Trojans, Rootkits

Clearing Tracks – Clearing tracks are those activities which are carried out to hide the malicious activities performed by the hackers. This is done mainly to continue the gained access.

What is Hacking?

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